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September An der EM nehmen erstmals 24 Mannschaften teil. Februar erfolgte, waren die Schweden in Topf 2 gesetzt. Das ist der Spielbericht zur Begegnung Schweden gegen Rumänien am im Wettbewerb EM-Qualifikation. Nations League Schweden steigt auf - Kosovo hat EM-Chance. 10 Uhr. Teilen · Mailen. Aufsteiger Trainer Janne Andersson sicherte sich mit. Die meisten Spieler kamen dabei zu ihren ersten Länderspieleinsätzen und spielen in der schwedischen Liga. Juli beim 6: In der Qualifikation am Titelverteidiger Italien gescheitert, das aber ebenfalls die Endrunde nicht erreichte. Als bester Gruppenzweiter schaffte die Mannschaft die direkte Qualifikation. Im ersten Gruppenspiel trafen sie auf Co-Gastgeber Ukraine und verloren mit 1: In der folgenden Vorausscheidung zur Europameisterschaft in Frankreich wurde Schweden in eine Gruppe mit erneut Österreich, Russland , Montenegro , Moldau und Liechtenstein gelost. Als überraschender Gruppenzweiter hinter dem Turnierfavoriten Niederlande gelang ungeschlagen und ohne Gegentor der Einzug in die zweite Finalrunde. In den Playoff-Spielen der Qualifikation an Portugal gescheitert. Griechenland , Russland , Spanien. Schweden belegte den zweiten Platz hinter Frankreich und vor den Niederlanden und nahmen somit an den Play-offs teil, wo sie auf Italien trafen. März war mit 0: Schweden gewann fünf Spiele, spielte zweimal remis und verlor nur das letzte Spiele gegen Lettland als die Qualifikation bereits perfekt war. Im Achtelfinale traf die Mannschaft auf das Überraschungsteam von Senegal. Im zweiten Spiel gegen England verloren sie nach wechselnden Führungen mit 2: In der Qualifikation an Rumänien gescheitert.

This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, [57] [59] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.

Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.

It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.

On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.

Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.

The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.

Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget. The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities.

The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters. The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.

The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.

Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.

The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, men.

However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.

The first recruits will begin their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service.

Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.

Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.

Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.

In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.

Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.

Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum.

According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.

Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.

Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government.

In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.

At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.

The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations.

The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.

This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls. As a result, food prices fell somewhat.

However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened. Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.

Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden. Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3.

As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.

Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension.

Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions. People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension.

There are several types of pensions in Sweden: A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions. The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 30 November The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated.

Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish. Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers.

Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century. Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion.

During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get. School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged.

There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year.

In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost.

The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden. In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. The Skara Cathedral is of bricks from the 14th century, and the Uppsala Cathedral in the 15th.

Around Sweden was out of the Middle Ages and united under King Gustav Vasa, who immediately initiated grand mansions, castles and fortresses to be built.

Some of the more magnificent include the Kalmar fortress, the Gripsholm Castle and the one at Vadstena. In the next two centuries, Sweden was designated by Baroque architecture and later the rococo.

Notable projects from that time include the city Karlskrona, which has now also been declared a World Heritage Site and the Drottningholm Palace.

The style came to dominate in the following decades. Some notable projects of this kind were the Million Programme , offering affordable living in large apartment complexes.

Swedes are among the greatest consumers of newspapers in the world, and nearly every town is served by a local paper. The two largest evening tabloids are Aftonbladet social democratic and Expressen liberal.

The ad-financed, free international morning paper, Metro International , was founded in Stockholm, Sweden. The public broadcasting companies held a monopoly on radio and television for a long time in Sweden.

Licence funded radio broadcasts started in A second radio network was started in and a third opened in response to pirate radio stations.

Non-profit community radio was allowed in and in commercial local radio started. The licence-funded television service was officially launched in A second channel, TV2 , was launched in These two channels operated by Sveriges Television since the late s held a monopoly until the s when cable and satellite television became available.

The first Swedish language satellite service was TV3 which started broadcasting from London in In the government announced it would begin taking applications from private television companies wishing to broadcast on the terrestrial network.

TV4, which had previously been broadcasting via satellite, was granted a permit and began its terrestrial broadcasts in , becoming the first private channel to broadcast television content from within the country.

Around half the population are connected to cable television. Digital terrestrial television in Sweden started in and the last analogue terrestrial broadcasts were terminated in With the conversion of the land to Christianity around AD, Sweden entered the Middle Ages , during which monastic writers preferred to use Latin.

Therefore, there are only a few texts in the Old Swedish from that period. Swedish literature only flourished when the Swedish language was standardised in the 16th century, a standardisation largely due to the full translation of the Bible into Swedish in This translation is the so-called Gustav Vasa Bible.

With improved education and the freedom brought by secularisation , the 17th century saw several notable authors develop the Swedish language further.

Some key figures include Georg Stiernhielm 17th century , who was the first to write classical poetry in Swedish; Johan Henric Kellgren 18th century , the first to write fluent Swedish prose; Carl Michael Bellman late 18th century , the first writer of burlesque ballads; and August Strindberg late 19th century , a socio-realistic writer and playwright who won worldwide fame.

In recent decades, a handful of Swedish writers have established themselves internationally, including the detective novelist Henning Mankell and the writer of spy fiction Jan Guillou.

In , the second best-selling fiction author in the world was Stieg Larsson , whose Millennium series of crime novels is being published posthumously to critical acclaim.

Apart from traditional Protestant Christian holidays , Sweden also celebrates some unique holidays, some of a pre-Christian tradition.

The day of giver-of-light Saint Lucia , 13 December, is widely acknowledged in elaborate celebrations which betoken its Italian origin and commence the month-long Christmas season.

Furthermore, there are official flag day observances and a Namesdays in Sweden calendar. Swedish cuisine, like that of the other Scandinavian countries Denmark , Norway and Finland , was traditionally simple.

Fish particularly herring , meat, potatoes and dairy products played prominent roles. Akvavit is a popular alcoholic distilled beverage , and the drinking of snaps is of cultural importance.

The traditional flat and dry crisp bread has developed into several contemporary variants. Swedish traditional dishes, some of which are many hundreds of years old, others perhaps a century or less, are still a very important part of Swedish everyday meals, in spite of the fact that modern-day Swedish cuisine adopts many international dishes.

Swedes have been fairly prominent in the film area through the years. These companies, however, are composed largely of buyers who import fashionable goods from throughout Europe and America, continuing the trend of Swedish business toward multinational economic dependency like many of its neighbours.

Sport activities are a national movement with half of the population actively participating in organised sporting activities.

The two main spectator sports are football and ice hockey. Second to football, horse sports have the highest number of practitioners who are mostly women.

Three Crowns ; the national symbol of Sweden , is regarded as one of the best in the world. The team has won the World Championships nine times, placing them third in the all-time medal count.

Tre Kronor also won Olympic gold medals in and In , Tre Kronor became the first national hockey team to win both the Olympic and world championships in the same year.

The Swedish national football team has seen some success at the World Cup in the past, finishing second when they hosted the tournament in , and third twice, in and Due to its northerly latitude numerous world class winter sports athletes have come from Sweden.

The following are links to international rankings of Sweden from selected research institutes and foundations including economic output and various composite indices.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Sweden disambiguation. For other uses of "Swedish" or the Swedish word "svensk a ", see Swedish disambiguation.

Greater coat of arms. Du gamla, Du fria [b] Thou ancient, thou free. Show map of Europe. The Swedish Sign Language also has a special status.

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Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Modernization of Sweden and Swedish emigration to the United States.

History of Sweden —present. Counties of Sweden and Municipalities of Sweden. Subdivisions of Sweden and National Areas of Sweden. Foreign relations of Sweden.

Swedish Armed Forces and Law enforcement in Sweden. Nordic model and Social welfare in Sweden. Social security in Sweden. Demographics of Sweden and Swedes.

Largest cities or towns in Sweden "Kommungruppsindelning ". Swedish language and Languages of Sweden. Public holidays in Sweden. Sweden portal Arctic portal.

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Though Denmark, where industrialization had begun in the s, was reasonably prosperous by the end of the nineteenth century, both Sweden and Norway were terribly poor.

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Archived from the original on 13 January Retrieved 9 April Archived from the original PDF on 27 November The Austrian team had qualified without their professional players, which was a surprise since the Austrian league had many professional players who were allowed to play in the tournament.

In the second game, Sweden played against Korea and won 12—0, one of the two largest margin wins Sweden has ever had. In the semi-final Sweden met their archrivals from Denmark beating them 4—2.

The final was played at legendary Wembley Stadium in London. The attendance was around 40, people which was high for a football game in those days.

In the World Cup , the Swedish football association did not allow any professional Swedish football players to take part.

Consequently, Sweden only fielded amateur players during the tournament. Qualifying for the tournament as one of six European national teams, Sweden played in the same group as Italy and Paraguay.

India withdrew from the group. The second match was a 2—2 draw against Paraguay. With the most points in the group, Sweden advanced to the next round.

Their first game in the second stage — also a group format — was against the hosts Brazil. The game ended 7—1 to Brazil and it is rumored that almost everyone in the Brazilian audience waved the Swedes goodbye with their scarfs.

The next game was against Uruguay, who Sweden played against for the first time in World Cup history. Sweden finished 3rd in the group and took their first World Cup medal.

As Sweden was the best placed European team, Sweden was, as the time, regarded "unofficial European champions".

At the Summer Olympics in in Helsinki , Sweden continued to achieve success and won an Olympic bronze. The following year, the Football Association decided not to allow foreign professionals to play in the national team and the team failed to qualify for the World Championships in Switzerland in when Sweden only came second in their qualifying group behind Belgium.

In , the Swedish football federation allowed the professional footballers to play for the national team again, giving Swedish football fans hope for the FIFA World Cup.

Sweden, the host nation, were in the same group as Mexico, Hungary and Wales. Sweden won the game 3—0, taking the lead in Group 3. The next match was against Hungary, who had finished 2nd in the World Cup in Switzerland and were also the Olympic Champions.

In the next match, against Wales, Sweden drew 0—0. The crowd of around 50, people attended one of the best games Sweden played in the tournament.

West Germany led by 1—0 when Erich Juskowiak was sent off in the 59th minute. The total attendance was approximately 52, people.

Brazil ended up winning the World Cup for the first time ever after beating Sweden by 5—2. Sweden consequently became runners-up, the best result for Sweden in any World Cup.

After the final match the Brazilian players honoured the host nation by sprinting around the pitch holding a Swedish flag.

In the qualification round of the World Cup, Sweden won its group in impressive fashion scoring 10 goals and only having 3 goals scored against it , but it still had to win a play-off game against Switzerland to qualify.

The game was played in West Berlin, and the Swiss won, 2—1. They started their play-off against Norway and won the first game and drew in the last game.

In the second round, Sweden beat Yugoslavia, 3—2, but they lost the first game. In the quarter-finals, Sweden played against the defending champions, the Soviet Union.

Sweden tied the first game but lost the second. Sweden started the qualification with a draw against West Germany and then a 3—0 victory over Cyprus.

But only the winner of the group advanced and Sweden was eliminated with a loss in its next game against West Germany.

Sweden finished third in its group, losing a tie-breaker with eventual 4 Uruguay, and did not advance to the elimination round, however.

Sweden clinched a narrow win via a classic play off-match against Austria in a snowy Gelsenkirchen , and advanced to the World Cup finals in Germany.

The group Sweden drew into included Uruguay, Netherlands and Bulgaria. The first game against Bulgaria ended in a draw. In the second game against the Netherlands, Sweden drew another tie.

The last game of the round was played against Uruguay. Sweden finished 2nd in the group and advanced to the second group stage. In the second group stage, Sweden was defeated in the first game against Poland 0—1.

The situation after the defeat against Poland was that if Sweden lost against West Germany with a single goal difference and Yugoslavia defeated Poland, Sweden would be second in the group and play for the bronze medal.

But since Poland beat Yugoslavia 2—1, Sweden had to win the game against the host nation, West Germany , in order to finish second in the group.

After the tournament, the German players commented that the game against Sweden was their best game in that tournament. Sweden won that game 2—1.

They finished the tournament as the 5th place team. Sweden did not qualify for the European Championship quarter-finals game in On 11 May , Sweden lost for the first time since at home to Denmark.

Sweden made it from the qualifiers in a three team group with Switzerland and Norway as opponents. The qualifying session was played in and in the World Cup in Argentina, Sweden played the first match with a draw 1—1 against Brazil.

The team then lost against Austria 0—1 and Spain 0—1. The Swedish team finished last in the group with 1 point and goal difference 1—3.

In , Sweden met Brazil in Gothenburg to play a friendly, the match ended 3—3. The Swedish setbacks continued. After the failed qualification for the World Cup , Olle Nordin took over the team.

Sweden lost their match against Czechoslovakia with in the final qualifying round, while Portugal unexpectedly won 1—0 away against West Germany and took second place in the group.

They won their qualification group for the World Cup ahead of England and went on to their first World Cup in 12 years. However, the World Cup campaign ended quickly after three 1—2 defeats in the group stage matches, against Brazil, Scotland and Costa Rica.

As of May , it is the only time that Sweden has failed to score points in a World Cup tournament. They were drawn in group A with Denmark, France and England.

Sweden managed to advance as group winners ahead of the eventual champions Denmark. In the semi-finals following the group stage, Sweden were eliminated by Germany with 2—3.

Sweden qualified for the World Cup in the United States at the top of their qualifying group ahead of Bulgaria and France.

The first game against Cameroon in Los Angeles looked to be yet another 1—2 loss, after the World Cup fiasco with losses of 1—2 in all three games but in the 75th minute, Martin Dahlin scored the equalizer from a rebound shot off of Henrik Larsson and the match finished 2—2.

In the next game against Russia in Detroit, Russia was handed an early penalty and made it 1—0. Sweden managed to come back, with a penalty goal from Tomas Brolin and two goals from Martin Dahlin, with the final result being 3—1.

In the first knockout-stage match, Sweden faced Saudi Arabia in the extreme heat and humidity of Dallas , where the game started at the hottest time of day- 4: Sweden won 3—1 after two goals from Kennet Andersson and one from Martin Dahlin.

After Sweden had scored late in the second half, Romania managed to equalize in the dying minutes of the match, sending it into extra time.

But with five minutes left, Kennet Andersson scored with a header to make it level at 2—2. Sweden advanced to the semi-finals, where they were to face Brazil in Los Angeles.

In the third-place match, Sweden played against a Bulgaria side that had lost to Italy in their semi-final match in New York City. Sweden scored 4 goals in the first half, but the second half went goal-less.

Sweden finished 3rd and won the bronze medal, the best placing for the national team in a World Cup since the silver medal. After the World Cup in , Sweden had difficulty reaching up to the same level.

The national team was knocked out in qualifying for the European Championships in England and the World Cup in France in The qualification for the Euro 96 had started with a win for Sweden 1—0 away against Iceland in September , but then lost against Switzerland away from home.

In November , Tomas Brolin broke his foot in a win against Hungary. In the spring of continued failure in the European Championship qualifiers.

Sweden lost the away games against Turkey and played 1—1 draw at home to Iceland. When Sweden drew 0—0 against Switzerland in Gothenburg in September , it was clear that the team would miss the European Championship finals.

The qualifying game for the France 98 was not better. In October , Austria won 1—0 in Stockholm and the month after the Swedes lost against Scotland on away ground.

Sweden qualified impressively for this tournament, winning all games except the away game against England 0—0 and conceding only one goal. The finals however, were a great disappointment.

Sweden lost their opening game against the host Belgium 1—2. Then Sweden played 0—0 against Turkey and lost 2—1 to Italy.

Sweden finished the group last behind Belgium with only 1 point. Italy finished first and Turkey second. The first match was against England.

Sol Campbell gave England the lead in the first half by heading in a left-side corner from David Beckham.

The equalizing goal was scored by midfielder Niclas Alexandersson , a powerful left-foot shot from outside the box past David Seaman.

The match ended 1—1. In the next game, Sweden played Nigeria. Julius Aghahowa gave Nigeria the lead by heading in a cross from the right.

Sweden managed to equalize with a fine goal by Henrik Larsson. Later in the game, Larsson was fouled in the penalty area and Sweden were awarded with a penalty which Larsson himself put in the goal.

In the final group match, Sweden played Argentina, who needed to win after losing 0—1 to England in the previous game.

Sweden midfielder Anders Svensson scored a freekick goal from 30 meters. Andreas Andersson had a shot off the crossbar and out in an attempt to extend the lead.

Mattias Jonson committed a foul in the penalty area and Argentina was awarded a penalty. The goal was controversial because Crespo began running into the box at the same time as Ortega stepped up to shoot.

However, the match ended 1—1 and Sweden won the group, England on second place, Argentina third and Nigeria last. In the round of 16, Sweden played Senegal.

Henrik Larsson gave Sweden an early lead by heading in a corner from Anders Svensson. Senegal equalized through Henri Camara.

They also had a goal disallowed for offside. The game came to sudden death golden goal. Then Svensson made a great spin past a defender and hit the post with a powerful shot, which Sylva would have had no chance of saving, had it gone inside the posts.

Camara then took a weak shot which went past Hedman, off the post and into the goal. Consequently, Sweden were eliminated.

Sweden came into the tournament in Portugal with low expectations. But after a dazzling 5—0 win against Bulgaria they became one of the favorites.

Henrik Larsson scored 2—0 and 3—0 in the second half. His first goal was done by a nice header after that he received a perfectly taken crossball by Erik Edman.

In the next game they were set up against Italy , who would prove themselves as a very hard opponent. After 36 minutes Antonio Cassano scored the first goal of the game for Italy after a cross by Christian Panucci.

A great game by Swedish goalkeeper Andreas Isaksson made Sweden survive the rest of the game and after 84 minutes Sweden finally managed to score a goal.

It was said before the game that if Sweden and Denmark played 2—2, Italy would be eliminated from the tournament. This is exactly what happened.

Denmark led the game by 2—1 for a long time. But at the end of the game, Mattias Jonson scored the equalizer after numerous rebounds.

Italy was eliminated and both Denmark and Sweden was qualified for the quarter-finals. In the quarter-finals, Sweden had to face Holland.

The game became goalless after full-time, but not without a lot of chances. The closest Sweden came to scoring was through Fredrik Ljungberg but he hit the post with a well taken shot.

But the game ended goalless in normal time and went to a penalty shootout. Sweden was eliminated and Holland was through to the next round.

Sweden competed in Group B at the World Cup. Their squad for the tournament featured players who played club football in eleven different nations.

Sweden started the World Cup slowly, recording a goal-less draw against unheralded Trinidad and Tobago , despite playing with a one-man advantage for most of the game.

The second game, against Paraguay , looked to be another goal-less draw until Fredrik Ljungberg scored in the 89th minute to give Sweden a 1—0 victory.

Sweden finished second in Group F behind Spain , thus qualifying for the finals. Their next game was against Spain, who they played in qualifying.

The game looked like a draw until a 92nd-minute strike from David Villa , which put the Spaniards ahead. In the final group match, the Swedes went on to lose 2—0 to the Russians, eliminating them from the tournament.

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Remains of what is believed to have been a large market dating from to AD have been found in Ystad. Between and , trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, and according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of this era hoarded more silver than the rest of the population of Scandinavia combined.

St Ansgar is usually credited with introducing Christianity in , but the new religion did not begin to fully replace paganism until the 12th century.

During the 11th century, Christianity became the prevalent religion, and from Sweden is counted as a Christian nation. The period between and was characterised by internal power struggles and competition among the Nordic kingdoms.

Except for the provinces of Scania, Blekinge and Halland in the south-west of the Scandinavian peninsula, which were parts of the Kingdom of Denmark during this time, feudalism never developed in Sweden as it did in the rest of Europe.

Slavery also called thralldom was not common in Sweden, [29] and what slavery there was tended to be driven out of existence thanks to the spread of Christianity as well as to the difficulty to obtain slaves from the lands east of the Baltic Sea, and by the development of cities before the 16th century.

Former slaves tended to be absorbed into the peasantry, and some became labourers in the towns. Still, Sweden remained a poor and economically backward country in which barter was the primary means of exchange.

For instance, the farmers of the province of Dalsland would transport their butter to the mining districts of Sweden and exchange it there for iron, which they would then take to the coast and trade for fish, which they consumed, while the iron would be shipped abroad.

In the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. The population at same territory did not reach the numbers of the year again until the beginning of the 19th century.

One third of the population died in the triennium of — During this period, the Swedish cities began to acquire greater rights and were strongly influenced by German merchants of the Hanseatic League , active especially at Visby.

King Christian II of Denmark , who asserted his claim to Sweden by force of arms, ordered a massacre of Swedish nobles in Stockholm in Shortly afterwards the new king rejected Catholicism and led Sweden into the Protestant Reformation.

The League sought civil and commercial privileges from the princes and royalty of the countries and cities along the coasts of the Baltic Sea.

Having their own navy, the Hansa were able to sweep the Baltic Sea free of pirates. They sought agreement to be free of all customs and taxes.

The main exports from Sweden were iron and copper. However, the Swedes began to resent the monopoly trading position of the Hansa mostly consisting of German citizens , and to resent the income they felt they lost to the Hansa.

Consequently, when Gustav Vasa or Gustav I broke the monopoly power of the Hanseatic League he was regarded as a hero by the Swedish people.

The foundations laid by Gustav would take time to develop. Furthermore, when Sweden did develop, freed itself from the Hanseatic League, and entered its golden era, the fact that the peasantry had traditionally been free meant that more of the economic benefits flowed back to them rather than going to a feudal landowning class.

During the 17th century Sweden emerged as a European great power. Before the emergence of the Swedish Empire, Sweden was a poor and scarcely populated country on the fringe of European civilisation, with no significant power or reputation.

These German provinces excluded themselves from Swedish power one by one, leaving Sweden with only a few northern German territories: Swedish Pomerania , Bremen-Verden and Wismar.

In the middle of the 17th century Sweden was the third-largest country in Europe by land area, only surpassed by Russia and Spain. Sweden reached its largest territorial extent under the rule of Charles X after the treaty of Roskilde in The Swedes conducted a series of invasions into the Polish—Lithuanian Commonwealth, known as the Deluge.

After more than half a century of almost constant warfare, the Swedish economy had deteriorated. His legacy to his son, the coming ruler of Sweden, Charles XII , was one of the finest arsenals in the world, a large standing army and a great fleet.

After the Battle of Narva in , one of the first battles of the Great Northern War , the Russian army was so severely devastated that Sweden had an open chance to invade Russia.

This gave Russia time to rebuild and modernise its army. After the success of invading Poland, Charles decided to make an attempt at invading Russia, but this ended in a decisive Russian victory at the Battle of Poltava in The defeat meant the beginning of the end for the Swedish Empire.

In addition, the plague raging in East Central Europe devastated the Swedish dominions and reached Central Sweden in Charles XII attempted to invade Norway in , but he was shot dead at Fredriksten fortress in Forced to cede large areas of land in the Treaty of Nystad in , Sweden also lost its place as an empire and as the dominant state on the Baltic Sea.

As the war finally ended in , Sweden had lost an estimated , men, , of those from the area of present-day Sweden and 50, from the Finnish part of Sweden.

In the 18th century, Sweden did not have enough resources to maintain its territories outside Scandinavia, and most of them were lost, culminating with the loss in of eastern Sweden to Russia, which became the highly autonomous Grand Principality of Finland in Imperial Russia.

In interest of re-establishing Swedish dominance in the Baltic Sea, Sweden allied itself against its traditional ally and benefactor, France, in the Napoleonic Wars.

He launched a military campaign against Norway on 27 July , ending in the Convention of Moss , which forced Norway into a personal union with Sweden under the Swedish crown, which lasted until The campaign was the last time Sweden was at war.

Many looked towards America for a better life during this time. It is thought that between and more than one million Swedes moved to the United States.

Despite the slow rate of industrialisation into the 19th century, many important changes were taking place in the agrarian economy due to constant innovations and a rapid population growth.

Strong grassroots movements sprung up in Sweden during the latter half of the 19th century trade unions, temperance groups, and independent religious groups , creating a strong foundation of democratic principles.

As the Industrial Revolution progressed during the 20th century, people gradually moved into cities to work in factories and became involved in socialist unions.

A communist revolution was avoided in , following the re-introduction of parliamentarism , and the country was democratised. The Swedish government unofficially supported Finland in the Winter War and the Continuation War by allowing volunteers and materiel to be shipped to Finland.

However, Sweden supported Norwegian resistance against Germany, and in helped rescue Danish Jews from deportation to Nazi concentration camps.

During the last year of the war, Sweden began to play a role in humanitarian efforts, and many refugees, among them several thousand Jews from Nazi-occupied Europe, were rescued thanks to the Swedish rescue missions to internment camps and partly because Sweden served as a haven for refugees, primarily from the Nordic countries and the Baltic states.

Following the war, Sweden took advantage of an intact industrial base, social stability and its natural resources to expand its industry to supply the rebuilding of Europe.

During most of the post-war era, the country was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in co-operation with trade unions and industry.

The government actively pursued an internationally competitive manufacturing sector of primarily large corporations. Sweden, like many industrialised countries, entered a period of economic decline and upheaval following the oil embargoes of —74 and — Shipbuilding was discontinued, wood pulp was integrated into modernised paper production, the steel industry was concentrated and specialised, and mechanical engineering was robotised.

Sweden GDP per capita ranking declined during this time. A bursting real estate bubble caused by inadequate controls on lending combined with an international recession and a policy switch from anti-unemployment policies to anti-inflationary policies resulted in a fiscal crisis in the early s.

Much of the political establishment promoted EU membership, and a referendum passed with Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January In a referendum the Swedish electorate voted against the country joining the Euro currency.

In Sweden got its first majority government for decades as the centre-right Alliance defeated the incumbent Social Democrat government.

Following the rapid growth of support for the anti-immigration Sweden Democrats , and their entrance to the Riksdag in , the Alliance became a minority cabinet.

Sweden remains non-aligned militarily, although it participates in some joint military exercises with NATO and some other countries, in addition to extensive co-operation with other European countries in the area of defence technology and defence industry.

Among others, Swedish companies export weapons that were used by the American military in Iraq. Sweden held the chair of the European Union from 1 July to 31 December In recent decades Sweden has become a more culturally diverse nation due to significant immigration; in it was estimated that 15 per cent of the population was foreign-born, and an additional 5 per cent of the population were born to two immigrant parents.

The influx of immigrants has brought new social challenges. Violent incidents have periodically occurred [71] [72] including the Stockholm riots which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Portuguese immigrant.

Situated in Northern Europe, Sweden lies west of the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Bothnia , providing a long coastline, and forms the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.

To the west is the Scandinavian mountain chain Skanderna , a range that separates Sweden from Norway.

Finland is located to its north-east. Its border with Norway 1, km long is the longest uninterrupted border within Europe.

Sweden has 25 provinces or landskap , based on culture, geography and history. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, with increasing forest coverage northward.

Most of Sweden has a temperate climate , despite its northern latitude , with largely four distinct seasons and mild temperatures throughout the year.

The winter in the far south is usually weak and is only manifested through some shorter periods with snow and sub-zero temperatures, autumn may well turn into spring there, without a distinct period of winter.

The country can be divided into three types of climate: Continental west-coasts to which all of Scandinavia belongs, as the westernmost part of the Eurasian continent , are notably warmer than continental east-coasts; this can also be seen by comparing e.

North of the Arctic Circle, the sun never sets for part of each summer, and it never rises for part of each winter. In the capital, Stockholm , daylight lasts for more than 18 hours in late June but only around 6 hours in late December.

Sweden receives between 1, and 1, hours of sunshine annually. Temperatures expected in Sweden are heavily influenced by the large Fennoscandian landmass, as well as continental Europe and western Russia, which allows hot or cool inland air to be easily transported to Sweden.

In winter however the same high-pressure systems sometimes puts the entire country far below freezing temperatures. There is some maritime moderation from the Atlantic which renders the Swedish continental climate less severe than that of nearby Russia.

Even though temperature patterns differ between north and south, the summer climate is surprisingly similar all through the entire country in spite of the large latitudal differences.

This is due to the south being surrounded by a greater mass of water, with the wider Baltic Sea and the Atlantic air passing over lowland areas from the south-west.

Apart from the ice-free Atlantic bringing marine air into Sweden tempering winters, the mildness is further explained by prevailing low-pressure systems postponing winter, with the long nights often staying above freezing in the south of the country due to the abundant cloud cover.

By the time winter finally breaks through, daylight hours rise quickly, ensuring that daytime temperatures soar quickly in spring.

With the greater number of clear nights, frosts remain commonplace quite far south as late as April. The cold winters occur when low-pressure systems are weaker.

An example is that the coldest ever month January in Stockholm was also the sunniest January month on record. The relative strength of low and high-pressure systems of marine and continental air also define the highly variable summers.

Nights normally remain cool, especially in inland areas. Despite northerly locations, southern and central Sweden may have almost no snow in some winters.

Most of Sweden is located in the rain shadow of the Scandinavian Mountains through Norway and north-west Sweden. The blocking of cool and wet air in summer as well as the greater landmass leads to warm and dry summers far north in the country, with quite warm summers at the Bothnia Bay coast at 65 degrees latitude, which is unheard of elsewhere in the world at such northerly coastlines.

The weather stations are sorted from south towards north by their numbers. Sweden has a considerable south to north distance stretching between the latitudes N The related matter of the length and strength of the four seasons plays a role in which plants that naturally can grow at various places.

Sweden is divided in five major vegetation zones. Also known as the nemoral region, the southern deciduous forest zone is a part of a larger vegetation zone which also includes Denmark and large parts of Central Europe.

It has to a rather large degree become agricultural areas, but larger and smaller forests still exist. The region is characterised by a large wealth of trees and shrubs.

The beech are the most dominant tree, but oak can also form smaller forests. Other important trees and shrubs in this zone include hornbeam , elder , hazel , fly honeysuckle , linden lime , spindle , yew , alder buckthorn , blackthorn , aspen , European rowan , Swedish whitebeam , juniper , European holly , ivy , dogwood , goat willow , larch , bird cherry , wild cherry , maple , ash , alder along creeks, and in sandy soil birch compete with pine.

In the southern parts of this zone the coniferous species are found, mainly spruce and pine , mixed with various deciduous trees. Birch grows largely everywhere.

This is however not the case with oak and ash. The northern coniferous forest zone begins north of the natural boundary of the oak. Of deciduous species the birch is the only one of significance.

Pine and spruce are dominant, but the forests are slowly but surely more sparsely grown the farther towards the north it gets. In the extreme north is it difficult to state the trees forms true forests at all, due to the large distances between the trees.

The alpine-birch zone, in the Scandinavian mountains, depending on both latitude and altitude, is an area where only a smaller kind of birch Betula pubescens or B.

Where this vegetation zone ends no trees grow at all: Sweden has four fundamental laws Swedish: Regeringsformen , the Act of Succession Swedish: Successionsordningen , the Freedom of the Press Act Swedish: The public sector in Sweden is divided into two parts: Kommunallagen passed by the Riksdag.

Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and King Carl XVI Gustaf is the head of state , but the role of the monarch is limited to ceremonial and representative functions.

Legislative power is vested in the unicameral Riksdag with members. General elections are held every four years, on the second Sunday of September.

Legislation may be initiated by the Government or by members of the Riksdag. Members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to a four-year term.

The internal workings of the Riksdag is, in addition to the Instrument of Government, regulated by the Riksdag Act Swedish: Regeringen operates as a collegial body with collective responsibility and consists of the Prime Minister — appointed and dismissed by the Speaker of the Riksdag following an actual vote in the Riksdag before an appointment can be made — and other cabinet ministers Swedish: Most of the State administrative authorities Swedish: A unique feature of Swedish State administration is that individual cabinet ministers do not bear any individual ministerial responsibility for the performance of the agencies within their portfolio; as the director-generals and other heads of government agencies reports directly to the Government as a whole; and individual ministers are prohibited to interfere; thus the origin of the pejorative in Swedish political parlance term ministerstyre English: The Judiciary is independent from the Riksdag, Government and other State administrative authorities.

The Swedish Social Democratic Party has played a leading role in Swedish politics since , after the Reformists had confirmed their strength and the left-wing revolutionaries formed their own party.

After , most governments have been dominated by the Social Democrats. Only five general elections since World War II— , , , and —have given the assembled bloc of centre-right parties enough seats in the Riksdag to form a government.

In the election, while the Greens lost their seats, two new parties gained seats for the first time: The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy.

It was not until elections in that an eighth party, the Sweden Democrats , gained Riksdag seats. In the elections to the European Parliament , parties who have failed to pass the Riksdag threshold have managed to gain representation at that venue: In the general election the Moderate Party formed the centre-right Alliance for Sweden bloc and won a majority of the Riksdag seats.

In the general election the Alliance contended against a unified left block consisting of the Social Democrats, the Greens and the Left Party.

Nevertheless, neither the Alliance, nor the left block, chose to form a coalition with the Sweden Democrats. The outcome of the general election resulted in the attainment of more seats by the three centre-left parties in comparison to the centre-right Alliance for Sweden, with the two blocs receiving and seats respectively.

Election turnout in Sweden has always been high by international comparison. Although it declined in recent decades, the latest elections saw an increase in voter turnout Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 county councils landsting and municipalities kommuner.

County councils and municipalities have different roles and separate responsibilities relating to local government.

Health care, public transport and certain cultural institutions are administered by county councils. Preschools, primary and secondary schooling, public water utilities, garbage disposal, elderly care and rescue services are administered by the municipalities.

Gotland is a special case of being a county council with only one municipality and the functions of county council and municipality are performed by the same organisation.

Municipal and county council government in Sweden is similar to city commission and cabinet-style council government. Both levels have legislative assemblies municipal councils and county council assemblies of between 31 and members always an uneven number that are elected from party-list proportional representation at the general election which are held every four years in conjunction with the national parliamentary elections.

These have no official political responsibilities but are traditional subdivisions of the Church of Sweden and still have some importance as census districts for census-taking and elections.

Each county administrative boards is led by a County Governor Swedish: The list of previous officeholders for the counties stretches back, in most cases, to when the counties were created by Lord High Chancellor Count Axel Oxenstierna.

The main responsibility of the County Administrative Board is to co-ordinate the development of the county in line with goals set by the Riksdag and Government.

There are older historical divisions, primarily the twenty-five provinces and three lands, which still retain cultural significance.

The actual age of the kingdom of Sweden is unknown. In the first case, Svealand was first mentioned as having one single ruler in the year 98 by Tacitus, but it is almost impossible to know for how long it had been this way.

These events are often described as the consolidation of Sweden , although substantial areas were conquered and incorporated later.

Earlier kings, for which no reliable historical sources exist, can be read about in mythical kings of Sweden and semi-legendary kings of Sweden.

Many of these kings are only mentioned in various saga and blend with Norse mythology. Up until the beginning of the s, all laws in Sweden were introduced with the words, "We, the king of Sweden, of the Goths and Wends".

This title was used up until The term riksdag was used for the first time in the s, although the first meeting where representatives of different social groups were called to discuss and determine affairs affecting the country as a whole took place as early as , in the town of Arboga.

As a reaction to the failed Great Northern War, a parliamentary system was introduced in , followed by three different flavours of constitutional monarchy in , and , the latter granting several civil liberties.

In Sweden became a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament, with the First Chamber indirectly elected by local governments, and the Second Chamber directly elected in national elections every four years.

In the parliament became unicameral. Legislative power was symbolically shared between the King and the Riksdag until Swedish taxation is controlled by the Riksdag.

Sweden is currently leading the EU in statistics measuring equality in the political system and equality in the education system.

Some Swedish political figures have become known worldwide, among these are: The courts are divided into two parallel and separate systems: There are also a number of special courts, which will hear a narrower set of cases, as set down by legislation.

While independent in their rulings, some of these courts are operated as divisions within courts of the general or general administrative courts.

The Supreme Court of Sweden Swedish: Before a case can be decided by the Supreme Court, leave to appeal must be obtained, and with few exceptions, leave to appeal can be granted only when the case is of interest as a precedent.

The Supreme Court consists of 16 Justices Swedish: According to a victimisation survey of 1, residents in , Sweden has above-average crime rates compared to other EU countries.

Sweden has high or above-average levels of assaults, sexual assaults, hate crimes, and consumer fraud. Sweden has low levels of burglary, car theft and drug problems.

Bribe seeking is rare. A mid-November news report announced that four prisons in Sweden were closed during the year due to a significant drop in the number of inmates.

Throughout the 20th century, Swedish foreign policy was based on the principle of non-alignment in peacetime and neutrality in wartime.

This has sometimes been disputed since in effect Sweden allowed in select cases the Nazi regime to use its railroad system to transport troops and goods, [57] [59] especially iron ore from mines in northern Sweden, which was vital to the German war machine.

During the early Cold War era, Sweden combined its policy of non-alignment and a low profile in international affairs with a security policy based on strong national defence.

Later investigations revealed that the plane was actually gathering information for NATO. Beginning in the late s, Sweden attempted to play a more significant and independent role in international relations.

It involved itself significantly in international peace efforts, especially through the United Nations, and in support to the Third World.

On 27 October , a Whiskey-class submarine U from the Soviet Union ran aground close to the naval base at Karlskrona in the southern part of the country.

Research has never clearly established whether the submarine ended up on the shoals through a navigational mistake or if an enemy committed espionage against Swedish military potential.

The incident triggered a diplomatic crisis between Sweden and the Soviet Union. Following the assassination of Olof Palme and with the end of the Cold War, Sweden has adopted a more traditional foreign policy approach.

Nevertheless, the country remains active in peace keeping missions and maintains a considerable foreign aid budget.

The law is enforced in Sweden by several government entities. The Swedish police is a Government agency concerned with police matters.

The primary task of the agency is to train and deploy peace support forces abroad, while maintaining the long-term ability to refocus on the defence of Sweden in the event of war.

The armed forces are divided into Army , Air Force and Navy. Up to the King was pro forma Commander-in-Chief , but in reality it was clearly understood all through the 20th century that the Monarch would have no active role as a military leader.

Until the end of the Cold War, nearly all males reaching the age of military service were conscripted. In recent years, the number of conscripted males has shrunk dramatically, while the number of female volunteers has increased slightly.

Recruitment has generally shifted towards finding the most motivated recruits, rather than solely those otherwise most fit for service.

All soldiers serving abroad must by law be volunteers. In the total number of conscripts was 45, By it was down to 15, On 1 July Sweden stopped routine conscription, switching to an all volunteer force unless otherwise required for defence readiness.

The total forces gathered would consist of about 60, men. This could be compared with the s before the fall of the Soviet Union, when Sweden could gather up to 1,, men.

However, on 11 December , due to tensions in the Baltic area, the Swedish Government reintroduced one part of the Swedish conscription system, refresher training.

The first recruits will begin their training in As the law now is gender neutral, both men and women may have to service.

Sweden is the sixteenth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP gross domestic product per capita and a high standard of living is experienced by its citizens.

Sweden is an export-oriented mixed economy. Timber, hydropower and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy with a heavy emphasis on foreign trade.

Sweden is the ninth-largest arms exporter in the world. The country ranks among the highest for telephone and Internet access penetration.

Both the prominent role of collective bargaining and the way in which the high rate of coverage is achieved reflect the dominance of self-regulation regulation by the labour market parties themselves over state regulation in Swedish industrial relations.

In and around Stockholm and Scania, two of the more densely populated regions of Sweden, the income Gini coefficient is between 0.

In terms of structure, the Swedish economy is characterised by a large, knowledge-intensive and export-oriented manufacturing sector; an increasing, but comparatively small, business service sector ; and by international standards, a large public service sector.

Large organisations, both in manufacturing and services, dominate the Swedish economy. The Swedish government is seeking to reduce its costs through decreased sick leave hours and increased efficiency.

Total tax collected by Sweden as a percentage of its GDP peaked at Overall, GDP growth has been fast since reforms—especially those in manufacturing—were enacted in the early s.

Sweden is the fourth-most competitive economy in the world, according to the World Economic Forum in its Global Competitiveness Report — The book compiled an index to measure the kind of creativity it claims is most useful to business—talent, technology and tolerance.

Sweden maintains its own currency, the Swedish krona SEK , a result of the Swedes having rejected the euro in a referendum. According to the Economic Survey of Sweden by the OECD, the average inflation in Sweden has been one of the lowest among European countries since the mids, largely because of deregulation and quick utilisation of globalisation.

Financial deregulation in the s impacted adversely on the property market, leading to a bubble and eventually a crash in the early s.

Commercial property prices fell by up to two thirds, resulting in two Swedish banks having to be taken over by the government. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened.

By , legislators, economists and the IMF were again warning of a bubble with residential property prices soaring and the level of personal mortgage debt expanding.

At the same time, the use of biofuels , peat etc. Sweden was a net importer of electricity by a margin of 6 TWh. Since then, electricity has been generated mostly from hydropower and nuclear power.

The use of nuclear power has been limited, however. Voters rejected right-hand traffic in , but after the Riksdag passed legislation in changeover took place on 3 September , known in Swedish as Dagen H.

The Stockholm metro is the only underground system in Sweden and serves the city of Stockholm via stations. The rail transport market is privatised, but while there are many privately owned enterprises, the largest operators are still owned by state.

The counties have financing, ticket and marketing responsibility for local trains. For other trains the operators handle tickets and marketing themselves.

Most of the railways are owned and operated by Trafikverket. A new tram line is set to open in Lund in The largest airports include Stockholm—Arlanda Airport The most used airport for a large part of Southern Sweden is Kastrup or Copenhagen Airport which is located only 12 minutes by train from the closest Swedish railway station, Hyllie.

Copenhagen Airport also is the largest international airport in Scandinavia and Finland. Sweden also has a number of car ferry connections to several neighbouring countries.

Trelleborg is the busiest ferry port in Sweden in terms of weight transported by lorry. There are over seventy departures a day each way; during peak times, a ferry departs every fifteen minutes.

Sweden has two domestic ferry lines with large vessels, both connecting Gotland with the mainland. Sweden has one of the most highly developed welfare states in the world.

A series of successive social reforms transformed the country into one of the most equal and developed on earth. The consistent growth of the welfare state led to Swedes achieving unprecedented levels of social mobility and quality of life—to this day Sweden consistently ranks at the top of league tables for health, literacy and Human Development—far ahead of some wealthier countries for example the United States.

Sweden began slowing the expansion of the welfare state in the s, and even trimming it back. Sweden has recently been relatively quick to adopt neoliberal policies, such as privatization , financialization and deregulation , [] [] compared to countries such as France.

Also since the mids, Sweden has had the fastest growth in inequality of any developed nation, according to the OECD.

This has largely been attributed to the reduction in state benefits and a shift toward the privatisation of public services. According to Barbro Sorman, an activist of the opposition Left Party, "The rich are getting richer, and the poor are getting poorer.

Sweden is starting to look like the USA. Sweden adopted free market agricultural policies in Since the s, the agricultural sector had been subject to price controls.

In June , the Riksdag voted for a new agricultural policy marking a significant shift away from price controls.

As a result, food prices fell somewhat. However, the liberalisations soon became moot because EU agricultural controls supervened.

Since the late s, Sweden has had the highest tax quota as percentage of GDP in the industrialised world, although today the gap has narrowed and Denmark has surpassed Sweden as the most heavily taxed country among developed countries.

Certain items are subject to additional taxes, e. In [update] , total tax revenue was State and municipal employees total around a third of the workforce, much more than in most Western countries.

Spending on transfers is also high. In and , 69 per cent of the employed workers is organised in trade unions. Sweden has a relatively high amount of sick leave per worker in OECD: The unemployment rate was 7.

Previously, technical progress had mainly come from mainland Europe. Many of the companies founded by early pioneers still remain major international brands.

Alfred Nobel invented dynamite and instituted the Nobel Prizes. Lars Magnus Ericsson started the company bearing his name, Ericsson, still one of the largest telecom companies in the world.

The traditional engineering industry is still a major source of Swedish inventions, but pharmaceuticals, electronics and other high-tech industries are gaining ground.

Tetra Pak was an invention for storing liquid foods, invented by Erik Wallenberg. A large portion of the Swedish economy is to this day based on the export of technical inventions, and many large multinational corporations from Sweden have their origins in the ingenuity of Swedish inventors.

Swedish inventors held 47, patents in the United States in [update] , according to the United States Patent and Trademark Office. As a nation, only ten other countries hold more patents than Sweden.

Combined, the public and the private sector in Sweden allocate over 3. As a percentage of GDP, the Swedish government spends the most of any nation on research and development.

Both facilities have strong implications on material research. Every Swedish resident receives a state pension. Swedish Pensions Agency is responsible for pensions.

People who have worked in Sweden, but relocated to another country, can also receive the Swedish pension. There are several types of pensions in Sweden: A person can receive a combination of the various types of pensions.

The total resident population of Sweden was 10,, on 30 November The mountains and most of the remote coastal areas are almost unpopulated.

Between and , approximately 1. There are more than 4. There are no official statistics on ethnicity, but according to Statistics Sweden, around 3,, The official language of Sweden is Swedish, [7] [8] a North Germanic language, related and very similar to Danish and Norwegian , but differing in pronunciation and orthography.

Norwegians have little difficulty understanding Swedish, and Danes can also understand it, with slightly more difficulty than Norwegians.

The same goes for standard Swedish speakers, who find it far easier to understand Norwegian than Danish. The dialects spoken in Scania , the southernmost part of the country, are influenced by Danish because the region traditionally was a part of Denmark and is nowadays situated closely to it.

However, no official statistics are kept on language use. Along with Finnish, four other minority languages are also recognised: In varying degrees, depending largely on frequency of interaction with English, a majority of Swedes, especially those born after World War II, understand and speak English, owing to trade links, the popularity of overseas travel, a strong Anglo-American influence and the tradition of subtitling rather than dubbing foreign television shows and films, and the relative similarity of the two languages which makes learning English easier.

English became a compulsory subject for secondary school students studying natural sciences as early as , and has been a compulsory subject for all Swedish students since the late s.

Most students also study one and sometimes two additional languages. These include but are not limited to German, French and Spanish.

Some Danish and Norwegian is at times also taught as part of Swedish courses for native speakers. Because of the extensive mutual intelligibility between the three continental Scandinavian languages Swedish speakers often use their native language when visiting or living in Norway or Denmark.

With Christianisation in the 11th century, the laws of the country changed, forbidding worship of other deities until the late 19th century.

Adoption of Lutheranism was completed by the Uppsala Synod of , and it became the official religion. During the era following the Reformation, usually known as the period of Lutheran orthodoxy , small groups of non-Lutherans, especially Calvinist Dutchmen , the Moravian Church and French Huguenots played a significant role in trade and industry, and were quietly tolerated as long as they kept a low religious profile.

With religious liberalisations in the late 18th century believers of other faiths, including Judaism and Roman Catholicism , were allowed to live and work freely in the country.

However, until it remained illegal for Lutherans to convert to another religion. The 19th century saw the arrival of various evangelical free churches , and, towards the end of the century, secularism , leading many to distance themselves from church rituals.

Leaving the Church of Sweden became legal with the so-called dissenter law of , but only under the provision of entering another Christian denomination.

The right to stand outside any religious denomination was formally established in the Law on Freedom of religion in In , the Church of Sweden was disestablished.

Sweden was the second Nordic country to disestablish its state church after Finland did so in the Church Act of At the end of , Since , only children that are christened become members.

Some , Swedes are today members of various Evangelical Protestant free churches where congregation attendance is much higher , and due to recent immigration, there are now some , Eastern Orthodox Christians and 92, Roman Catholics living in Sweden.

The first Muslim congregation was established in , when a small contingent of Tatars migrated from Finland. Further immigration from North Africa and the Middle East have brought the estimated Muslim population to , According to the Eurobarometer Poll , [].

Sociology professor Phil Zuckerman claims that Swedes, despite a lack of belief in God, commonly question the term atheist , preferring to call themselves Christians while being content with remaining in the Church of Sweden.

Healthcare in Sweden is similar in quality to other developed nations. Sweden ranks in the top five countries with respect to low infant mortality.

It also ranks high in life expectancy and in safe drinking water. The health care is governed by the 21 landsting of Sweden and is mainly funded by taxes, with nominal fees for patients.

Children aged 1—5 years old are guaranteed a place in a public kindergarten Swedish: Between the ages of 6 and 16, children attend compulsory comprehensive school.

The school system is largely financed by taxes. The Swedish government treats public and independent schools equally [] by introducing education vouchers in as one of the first countries in the world after the Netherlands.

Anyone can establish a for-profit school and the municipality must pay new schools the same amount as municipal schools get.

School lunch is free for all students in Sweden, and providing breakfast is also encouraged. There are a number of different universities and colleges in Sweden , the oldest and largest of which are situated in Uppsala , Lund , Gothenburg and Stockholm.

The large influx of immigrants to Swedish schools has been cited as a significant part of the reason why Sweden has dropped more than any other European country in the international PISA rankings.

Immigration has been a major source of population growth and cultural change throughout much of the history of Sweden , and in recent centuries the country has been transformed from a nation of net emigration, ending after World War I, to a nation of net immigration, from World War II onwards.

The economic, social, and political aspects of immigration have caused controversy regarding ethnicity, economic benefits, jobs for non-immigrants, settlement patterns, impact on upward social mobility , crime, and voting behaviour.

There are no exact numbers on the ethnic background of migrants and their descendants in Sweden because the Swedish government does not base any statistics on ethnicity.

In addition, , persons were born in Sweden to two parents born abroad and another , persons had one parent born abroad with the other parent born in Sweden.

According to Eurostat , in , there were 1. Of these, , 9. In , immigration reached its highest level since records began, with , people emigrating to Sweden.

The ten largest groups of foreign-born persons in the Swedish civil registry in were from: The total immigration to Sweden for will be roughly people, and after that individuals every year.

In total seven Nobel Prizes in Literature have been awarded to Swedes. In the s—s, the filmmaker Ingmar Bergman and actors Greta Garbo and Ingrid Bergman became internationally noted people within cinema.

Throughout the s and s Sweden was seen as an international leader in what is now referred to as the " sexual revolution ", with gender equality having particularly been promoted.

The image of "hot love and cold people" emerged. Sexual liberalism was seen as part of modernisation process that by breaking down traditional borders would lead to the emancipation of natural forces and desires.

Since 1 May , Sweden repealed its "registered partnership" laws and fully replaced them with gender-neutral marriage , [] Sweden also offers domestic partnerships for both same-sex and opposite-sex couples.

Cohabitation sammanboende by couples of all ages, including teenagers as well as elderly couples, is widespread. Recently, Sweden is experiencing a baby boom.

Historical re-creations of Norse music have been attempted based on instruments found in Viking sites. The instruments used were the lur a sort of trumpet , simple string instruments, wooden flutes and drums.

Sweden has a significant folk-music scene. There is Sami music, called the joik , which is a type of chant which is part of the traditional Sami animistic spirituality.

Sweden also has a prominent choral music tradition. Out of a population of 9. In , with over million dollars in revenue, Sweden was the third-largest music exporter in the world and surpassed only by the US and the UK.

Sweden has also become known for a large number of heavy metal bands, including Bathory , Opeth , Amon Amarth and Ghost. The renowned neo-classical power metal guitarist Yngwie Malmsteen is also from Sweden.

In the mids, Martin came back with a more rock-tinged sound and produced major hits with artists such as Kelly Clarkson , Pink and Katy Perry.

Sweden is one of the most successful competing nations at the Eurovision Song Contest , with a total of six victories in the contest , , , , and , right behind Ireland who have seven wins.

In the Eurovision Song Contest each participating country submits an original song to be performed on live television and radio; however, no restriction on the nationality of the songwriter or the artist exists which has resulted in countries being represented by songwriters and artist who are not nationals of that country.

In recent years Swedish songwriters have been involved in the writing — entirely or partly — of entries from several countries in addition to Sweden.

For instance, in the edition of Eurovision Song Contest, Swedish songwriters and producers featured in 10 out of the 42 songs that qualified for the contest; in , the numbers were 7 songs out of the 39 songs in the contest; in , 7 songs out of 37 songs in the contest; in , 8 songs out of 40 songs in the contest; in , 12 songs out of 42 songs in the contest.

Sweden has a rather lively jazz scene. During the last sixty years or so it has attained a remarkably high artistic standard, stimulated by domestic as well as external influences and experiences.

Before the 13th century almost all buildings were made of timber, but a shift began towards stone. Early Swedish stone buildings are the Romanesque churches on the country side.

As so happens, many of them were built in Scania and are in effect Danish churches. From to late s, they were considered one of the greatest teams in Europe.

Sweden made their first World Cup appearance in Sweden has made twelve World Cup appearances and six appearances in the European Championships.

Sweden has traditionally been a strong team in international football, with 11 World Cup appearances and 3 medals in the Olympics.

The Swedish team finished second in the World Cup , when it was the host team, being beaten by Brazil 5—2 in the final. Sweden has also finished third twice, in and In , they finished fourth.

Sweden played its first international game against Norway on 12 July , an 11—3 victory. Other matches in were played against England , Great Britain, the Netherlands twice and Belgium ; Sweden lost all five matches.

In the same year, Sweden competed in the Summer Olympics for the first time. In , Sweden defeated Denmark for the first time.

Sweden played in the Olympics as hosts , the Olympics, and in the Olympics, where Sweden took the bronze and their first medal ever.

Instead, Sweden went straight to the quarter-finals match against Cuba. In the semi-final match against Hungary , Sweden lost 1—5.

In that game the Swedes lost 2—4, and ended in fourth place for the first and only time in Swedish football history. In the first round, Sweden played against Austria.

The Austrian team had qualified without their professional players, which was a surprise since the Austrian league had many professional players who were allowed to play in the tournament.

In the second game, Sweden played against Korea and won 12—0, one of the two largest margin wins Sweden has ever had.

In the semi-final Sweden met their archrivals from Denmark beating them 4—2. The final was played at legendary Wembley Stadium in London. The attendance was around 40, people which was high for a football game in those days.

In the World Cup , the Swedish football association did not allow any professional Swedish football players to take part. Consequently, Sweden only fielded amateur players during the tournament.

Qualifying for the tournament as one of six European national teams, Sweden played in the same group as Italy and Paraguay.

India withdrew from the group. The second match was a 2—2 draw against Paraguay. With the most points in the group, Sweden advanced to the next round.

Their first game in the second stage — also a group format — was against the hosts Brazil. The game ended 7—1 to Brazil and it is rumored that almost everyone in the Brazilian audience waved the Swedes goodbye with their scarfs.

The next game was against Uruguay, who Sweden played against for the first time in World Cup history. Sweden finished 3rd in the group and took their first World Cup medal.

As Sweden was the best placed European team, Sweden was, as the time, regarded "unofficial European champions".

At the Summer Olympics in in Helsinki , Sweden continued to achieve success and won an Olympic bronze. The following year, the Football Association decided not to allow foreign professionals to play in the national team and the team failed to qualify for the World Championships in Switzerland in when Sweden only came second in their qualifying group behind Belgium.

In , the Swedish football federation allowed the professional footballers to play for the national team again, giving Swedish football fans hope for the FIFA World Cup.

Sweden, the host nation, were in the same group as Mexico, Hungary and Wales. Sweden won the game 3—0, taking the lead in Group 3.

The next match was against Hungary, who had finished 2nd in the World Cup in Switzerland and were also the Olympic Champions.

In the next match, against Wales, Sweden drew 0—0. The crowd of around 50, people attended one of the best games Sweden played in the tournament.

West Germany led by 1—0 when Erich Juskowiak was sent off in the 59th minute. The total attendance was approximately 52, people.

Brazil ended up winning the World Cup for the first time ever after beating Sweden by 5—2. Sweden consequently became runners-up, the best result for Sweden in any World Cup.

After the final match the Brazilian players honoured the host nation by sprinting around the pitch holding a Swedish flag.

In the qualification round of the World Cup, Sweden won its group in impressive fashion scoring 10 goals and only having 3 goals scored against it , but it still had to win a play-off game against Switzerland to qualify.

The game was played in West Berlin, and the Swiss won, 2—1. They started their play-off against Norway and won the first game and drew in the last game.

In the second round, Sweden beat Yugoslavia, 3—2, but they lost the first game. In the quarter-finals, Sweden played against the defending champions, the Soviet Union.

Sweden tied the first game but lost the second. Sweden started the qualification with a draw against West Germany and then a 3—0 victory over Cyprus.

But only the winner of the group advanced and Sweden was eliminated with a loss in its next game against West Germany.

Sweden finished third in its group, losing a tie-breaker with eventual 4 Uruguay, and did not advance to the elimination round, however.

Sweden clinched a narrow win via a classic play off-match against Austria in a snowy Gelsenkirchen , and advanced to the World Cup finals in Germany.

The group Sweden drew into included Uruguay, Netherlands and Bulgaria. The first game against Bulgaria ended in a draw. In the second game against the Netherlands, Sweden drew another tie.

The last game of the round was played against Uruguay. Sweden finished 2nd in the group and advanced to the second group stage. In the second group stage, Sweden was defeated in the first game against Poland 0—1.

The situation after the defeat against Poland was that if Sweden lost against West Germany with a single goal difference and Yugoslavia defeated Poland, Sweden would be second in the group and play for the bronze medal.

But since Poland beat Yugoslavia 2—1, Sweden had to win the game against the host nation, West Germany , in order to finish second in the group.

After the tournament, the German players commented that the game against Sweden was their best game in that tournament. Sweden won that game 2—1. They finished the tournament as the 5th place team.

Sweden did not qualify for the European Championship quarter-finals game in On 11 May , Sweden lost for the first time since at home to Denmark.

Sweden made it from the qualifiers in a three team group with Switzerland and Norway as opponents. The qualifying session was played in and in the World Cup in Argentina, Sweden played the first match with a draw 1—1 against Brazil.

The team then lost against Austria 0—1 and Spain 0—1. The Swedish team finished last in the group with 1 point and goal difference 1—3.

In , Sweden met Brazil in Gothenburg to play a friendly, the match ended 3—3. The Swedish setbacks continued. After the failed qualification for the World Cup , Olle Nordin took over the team.

Sweden lost their match against Czechoslovakia with in the final qualifying round, while Portugal unexpectedly won 1—0 away against West Germany and took second place in the group.

They won their qualification group for the World Cup ahead of England and went on to their first World Cup in 12 years.

However, the World Cup campaign ended quickly after three 1—2 defeats in the group stage matches, against Brazil, Scotland and Costa Rica.

As of May , it is the only time that Sweden has failed to score points in a World Cup tournament. They were drawn in group A with Denmark, France and England.

Sweden managed to advance as group winners ahead of the eventual champions Denmark. In the semi-finals following the group stage, Sweden were eliminated by Germany with 2—3.

Sweden qualified for the World Cup in the United States at the top of their qualifying group ahead of Bulgaria and France.

The first game against Cameroon in Los Angeles looked to be yet another 1—2 loss, after the World Cup fiasco with losses of 1—2 in all three games but in the 75th minute, Martin Dahlin scored the equalizer from a rebound shot off of Henrik Larsson and the match finished 2—2.

In the next game against Russia in Detroit, Russia was handed an early penalty and made it 1—0. Sweden managed to come back, with a penalty goal from Tomas Brolin and two goals from Martin Dahlin, with the final result being 3—1.

In the first knockout-stage match, Sweden faced Saudi Arabia in the extreme heat and humidity of Dallas , where the game started at the hottest time of day- 4: Sweden won 3—1 after two goals from Kennet Andersson and one from Martin Dahlin.

After Sweden had scored late in the second half, Romania managed to equalize in the dying minutes of the match, sending it into extra time. But with five minutes left, Kennet Andersson scored with a header to make it level at 2—2.

Sweden advanced to the semi-finals, where they were to face Brazil in Los Angeles. In the third-place match, Sweden played against a Bulgaria side that had lost to Italy in their semi-final match in New York City.

Sweden scored 4 goals in the first half, but the second half went goal-less. Sweden finished 3rd and won the bronze medal, the best placing for the national team in a World Cup since the silver medal.

After the World Cup in , Sweden had difficulty reaching up to the same level. The national team was knocked out in qualifying for the European Championships in England and the World Cup in France in The qualification for the Euro 96 had started with a win for Sweden 1—0 away against Iceland in September , but then lost against Switzerland away from home.

In November , Tomas Brolin broke his foot in a win against Hungary. In the spring of continued failure in the European Championship qualifiers.

Sweden lost the away games against Turkey and played 1—1 draw at home to Iceland. When Sweden drew 0—0 against Switzerland in Gothenburg in September , it was clear that the team would miss the European Championship finals.

The qualifying game for the France 98 was not better. In October , Austria won 1—0 in Stockholm and the month after the Swedes lost against Scotland on away ground.

Sweden qualified impressively for this tournament, winning all games except the away game against England 0—0 and conceding only one goal. The finals however, were a great disappointment.

Sweden lost their opening game against the host Belgium 1—2. Then Sweden played 0—0 against Turkey and lost 2—1 to Italy. Sweden finished the group last behind Belgium with only 1 point.

Italy finished first and Turkey second. The first match was against England. Sol Campbell gave England the lead in the first half by heading in a left-side corner from David Beckham.

The equalizing goal was scored by midfielder Niclas Alexandersson , a powerful left-foot shot from outside the box past David Seaman.

The match ended 1—1. In the next game, Sweden played Nigeria. Julius Aghahowa gave Nigeria the lead by heading in a cross from the right.

Sweden managed to equalize with a fine goal by Henrik Larsson. Later in the game, Larsson was fouled in the penalty area and Sweden were awarded with a penalty which Larsson himself put in the goal.

In the final group match, Sweden played Argentina, who needed to win after losing 0—1 to England in the previous game. Sweden midfielder Anders Svensson scored a freekick goal from 30 meters.

Andreas Andersson had a shot off the crossbar and out in an attempt to extend the lead. Mattias Jonson committed a foul in the penalty area and Argentina was awarded a penalty.

The goal was controversial because Crespo began running into the box at the same time as Ortega stepped up to shoot. However, the match ended 1—1 and Sweden won the group, England on second place, Argentina third and Nigeria last.

In the round of 16, Sweden played Senegal. Henrik Larsson gave Sweden an early lead by heading in a corner from Anders Svensson.

Senegal equalized through Henri Camara. They also had a goal disallowed for offside. The game came to sudden death golden goal. Then Svensson made a great spin past a defender and hit the post with a powerful shot, which Sylva would have had no chance of saving, had it gone inside the posts.

Camara then took a weak shot which went past Hedman, off the post and into the goal. Consequently, Sweden were eliminated. Sweden came into the tournament in Portugal with low expectations.

But after a dazzling 5—0 win against Bulgaria they became one of the favorites. Henrik Larsson scored 2—0 and 3—0 in the second half.

His first goal was done by a nice header after that he received a perfectly taken crossball by Erik Edman. In the next game they were set up against Italy , who would prove themselves as a very hard opponent.

After 36 minutes Antonio Cassano scored the first goal of the game for Italy after a cross by Christian Panucci. A great game by Swedish goalkeeper Andreas Isaksson made Sweden survive the rest of the game and after 84 minutes Sweden finally managed to score a goal.

It was said before the game that if Sweden and Denmark played 2—2, Italy would be eliminated from the tournament.

This is exactly what happened.

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Schweden, das bei der Gruppenauslosung in Topf 2 gesetzt war, absolvierte die Qualifikation zur Europameisterschaft in der Gruppe G. Die schwedische Nationalmannschaft konnte lange Zeit nicht an die Erfolge aus diesem Jahrzehnt anknüpfen. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Für Schweden war es die sechste Teilnahme und seitdem Schweden die EM-Endrunde ausrichten durfte, verpassten die Schweden nur die erste Austragung mit 16 Mannschaften. Spieler von europäischen Top-Mannschaften kamen nicht zum Einsatz. Nyman blieb zunächst im Amt, nach der verpassten Qualifikation für die WM — durch ein 1: Im Rückspiel verloren sie dann mit 1: Hinzu kam, dass Schweden aufgrund eines Platzverweises fast eine ganze Stunde in Unterzahl spielen musste und darüber hinaus einen Elfmeter in der zweiten Halbzeit nicht verwandeln konnte. In the following two decades the property sector strengthened. On 11 MaySweden lost for the first time since at home to Denmark. Khalifa International Stadium Attendance: Retrieved 20 July Sweden would lose to Schweden em on home ground with an early strike from Thomas Kahlenberg after a defensive mistake. The election saw the return of the Greens and the demise of New Democracy. The situation after the defeat against Poland was that if Sweden lost against West Germany with a single goal difference 100 casino deposit bonus Yugoslavia defeated Poland, Sweden free 3d casino slots be second in the group and play for the bronze medal. A History of Lutheranism 2nd ed. Member states of the European Union. In the middle of the 14th century, Sweden was struck by the Black Death. Sweden, the host nation, were in the same group as Mexico, Hungary and Wales. Violent incidents have periodically occurred [71] [72] including the Bet and win quoten riots which broke out following the police shooting of an elderly Portuguese immigrant.

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