Die österreichische Fußballnationalmannschaft bei der Fußball- Europameisterschaft in Österreich und der Schweiz. An der EM nehmen erstmals 24 Mannschaften teil. Für die Für Österreich war es die erste EM-Qualifikation, die ohne Niederlage. Jan. Das ÖVV-Team trifft bei der EM in Brüssel und Antwerpen auf attraktive Gegner. Auch Erzrivale Deutschland wartet.
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Another theory says that this name comes from the local name of the mountain whose original Slovenian name is "Ostravica" sharp mountain - because it is very steep on both sides.
Austria was a prefecture of Bavaria created in The word "Austria" is a Latinisation of the German name and was first recorded in the 12th century.
The Central European land that is now Austria was settled in pre-Roman times by various Celtic tribes. The Celtic kingdom of Noricum was later claimed by the Roman Empire and made a province.
Present-day Petronell- Carnuntum in eastern Austria was an important army camp turned capital city in what became known as the Upper Pannonia province.
Carnuntum was home for 50, people for nearly years. The area was known as the marchia Orientalis and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in In , the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria.
With the death of Frederick II in , the line of the Babenbergs was extinguished. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria.
Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, henceforth every emperor of the Holy Roman Empire was a Habsburg, with only one exception.
The Habsburgs began also to accumulate territory far from the hereditary lands. The Turks made incursions into Styria nearly 20 times,  of which some are cited as "burning, pillaging, and taking thousands of slaves".
During the long reign of Leopold I — and following the successful defence of Vienna against the Turks in under the command of the King of Poland, John III Sobieski ,  a series of campaigns resulted in bringing most of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Karlowitz in Emperor Charles VI relinquished many of the gains the empire made in the previous years, largely due to his apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg.
Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for recognition of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir.
With the rise of Prussia , the Austrian—Prussian dualism began in Germany. Austria participated, together with Prussia and Russia, in the first and the third of the three Partitions of Poland in and Austria later became engaged in a war with Revolutionary France , at the beginning highly unsuccessfully, with successive defeats at the hands of Napoleon, meaning the end of the old Holy Roman Empire in Two years earlier,  the Empire of Austria was founded.
From to , the Austrians had suffered , casualties. Because of unsolved social, political, and national conflicts, the German lands were shaken by the revolution aiming to create a unified Germany.
The various different possibilities for a united Germany were: As Austria was not willing to relinquish its German-speaking territories to what would become the German Empire of , the crown of the newly formed empire was offered to the Prussian King Friedrich Wilhelm IV.
In , Austria and Prussia fought together against Denmark and secured the independence from Denmark of the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
As they could not agree on how the two duchies should be administered, though, they fought the Austro-Prussian War in As a result, ruling Austria—Hungary became increasingly difficult in an age of emerging nationalist movements, requiring considerable reliance on an expanded secret police.
Yet, the government of Austria tried its best to be accommodating in some respects: The Reichsgesetzblatt , publishing the laws and ordinances of Cisleithania , was issued in eight languages; all national groups were entitled to schools in their own language and to the use of their mother tongue at state offices, for example.
Many Austrians, especially those involved with the pan-German movements, desired for the reinforcement of an ethnic German identity and hoped that the empire would collapse which would subsequently allow an annexation of Austria with Germany.
This meant in practice that the civil service would almost exclusively hire Czechs, because most middle-class Czechs spoke the German language, but not the other way around.
The support of ultramontane Catholic politicians and clergy for this reform triggered the launch of the " Away from Rome " German: On 30 October the assembly founded the Republic of German Austria by appointing a government, called Staatsrat.
This new government was invited by the Emperor to take part in the decision on the planned armistice with Italy, but refrained from this business.
This left the responsibility for the end of the war, on 3 November , solely to the emperor and his government. On 11 November, the emperor, advised by ministers of the old and the new governments, declared he would not take part in state business any more; on 12 November, German Austria, by law, declared itself to be a democratic republic and part of the new German republic.
The constitution, renaming the Staatsrat as Bundesregierung federal government and Nationalversammlung as Nationalrat national council was passed on 10 November The Treaty of Saint-Germain of for Hungary the Treaty of Trianon of confirmed and consolidated the new order of Central Europe which to a great extent had been established in November , creating new states and altering others.
On the same day it drafted a provisional constitution that stated that "German-Austria is a democratic republic" Article 1 and "German-Austria is an integral part of the German reich" Article 2.
Over 3 million German-speaking Austrians found themselves living outside the new Austrian Republic as minorities in the newly formed or enlarged states of Czechoslovakia , Yugoslavia , Hungary , and Italy.
The status of South Tyrol was a lingering problem between Austria and Italy until it was officially settled by the s with a great degree of autonomy being granted to it by the Italian national government.
Not only did the Entente powers forbid German Austria to unite with Germany, but they also rejected the name German Austria in the peace treaty to be signed; it was, therefore, changed to Republic of Austria in late The border between Austria and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes later Yugoslavia was settled with the Carinthian Plebiscite in October and allocated the major part of the territory of the former Austro-Hungarian Crownland of Carinthia to Austria.
This set the border on the Karawanken mountain range, with many Slovenes remaining in Austria. In autumn , Austria was granted an international loan supervised by the League of Nations.
The loan meant that Austria passed from an independent state to the control exercised by the League of Nations.
In , the Schilling was introduced, replacing the Krone at a rate of 10, Later, it was nicknamed the "Alpine dollar" due to its stability. From to , the economy enjoyed a short high before nearly crashing [ clarification needed ] after Black Tuesday.
The First Austrian Republic lasted until , when Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuss , using what he called "self-switch-off of Parliament" , established an autocratic regime tending towards Italian fascism.
In February , several members of the Schutzbund were executed,  the Social Democratic party was outlawed, and many of its members were imprisoned or emigrated.
His successor Kurt Schuschnigg acknowledged Austria as a "German state" and that Austrians were "better Germans" but wished for Austria to remain independent.
He established a plebiscite confirming the union with Germany in April Parliamentary elections were held in Germany including recently annexed Austria on 10 April They were the final elections to the Reichstag during Nazi rule, and took the form of a single-question referendum asking whether voters approved of a single Nazi-party list for the member Reichstag, as well as the recent annexation of Austria the Anschluss.
Jews and Gypsies were not allowed to vote. On 12 March , Austria was annexed to the Third Reich and ceased to exist as an independent country.
The Aryanisation of the wealth of Jewish Austrians started immediately in mid-March, with a so-called "wild" i.
The invading Allied powers, in particular the Americans, planned for the supposed "Alpine Fortress Operation" of a national redoubt, that was largely to have taken place on Austrian soil in the mountains of the eastern Alps.
However, it never materialised because of the rapid collapse of the Reich. At the end of April, most of western and southern Austria were still under Nazi rule.
On 1 May , the federal constitution of , which had been terminated by dictator Dollfuss on 1 May , was declared valid again. Total military deaths from to are estimated at , Thousands of Austrians had taken part in serious Nazi crimes hundreds of thousands died in Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp alone , a fact officially recognised by Chancellor Franz Vranitzky in Thus, the creation of a separate Western Austrian government and the division of the country was avoidable.
Austria, in general, was treated as though it had been originally invaded by Germany and liberated by the Allies. On 15 May , after talks which lasted for years and were influenced by the Cold War , Austria regained full independence by concluding the Austrian State Treaty with the Four Occupying Powers.
On 26 October , after all occupation troops had left, Austria declared its "permanent neutrality" by an act of parliament. The political system of the Second Republic is based on the constitution of and , which was reintroduced in Since , governing via a single-party government has occurred twice: Kurt Waldheim , a Wehrmacht officer in the Second World War accused of war crimes , was elected President of Austria from to Following a referendum in , at which consent reached a majority of two-thirds, the country became a member of the European Union on 1 January Austria became a federal , representative democratic republic through the Federal Constitution of The political system of the Second Republic with its nine states is based on the constitution of , amended in , which was reenacted on 1 May The chairman of the Federal Government is the Federal Chancellor , who is appointed by the President.
The government can be removed from office by either a presidential decree or by vote of no confidence in the lower chamber of parliament, the Nationalrat.
Voting for the Federal President and for the Parliament used to be compulsory in Austria, but this was abolished in steps from to The Parliament of Austria consists of two chambers.
The composition of the Nationalrat seats is determined every five years or whenever the Nationalrat has been dissolved by the federal president on a motion by the federal chancellor, or by Nationalrat itself by a general election in which every citizen over 16 years since has voting rights.
The Nationalrat is the dominant chamber in the formation of legislation in Austria. However, the upper house of parliament, the Bundesrat , has a limited right of veto the Nationalrat can—in almost all cases—ultimately pass the respective bill by voting a second time.
With legislative and executive, the courts are the third column of Austrian state powers. Notably the Constitutional Court Verfassungsgerichtshof may exert considerable influence on the political system by ruling out laws and ordinances not in compliance with the constitution.
Since , the European Court of Justice may overrule Austrian decisions in all matters defined in laws of the European Union.
This coalition broke up in June After the Grand Coalition broke in Spring a snap election was proclaimed for October NEOS finished fourth with 10 seats 5.
On 26 October , the Federal Assembly passed a constitutional article in which "Austria declares of her own free will her perpetual neutrality".
The second section of this law stated that "in all future times Austria will not join any military alliances and will not permit the establishment of any foreign military bases on her territory".
Since then, Austria has shaped its foreign policy on the basis of neutrality, but rather different from the neutrality of Switzerland.
Meanwhile, the only part of the Constitutional Law on Neutrality of still fully valid is not to allow foreign military bases in Austria.
Austria attaches great importance to participation in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and other international economic organisations, and it has played an active role in the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe OSCE.
The manpower of the Austrian Armed Forces German: Bundesheer mainly relies on conscription. Both males and females at the age of sixteen are eligible for voluntary service.
Since , women volunteers have been allowed to become professional soldiers. Austria is a landlocked country and has no navy. The Army currently has about 26,  soldiers, of whom about 12, are conscripts.
Since the end of the Cold War , and more importantly the removal of the former heavily guarded " Iron Curtain " separating Austria and its Eastern Bloc neighbours Hungary and former Czechoslovakia , the Austrian military has been assisting Austrian border guards in trying to prevent border crossings by illegal immigrants.
This assistance came to an end when Hungary and Slovakia joined the EU Schengen Area in , for all intents and purposes abolishing "internal" border controls between treaty states.
Some politicians have called for a prolongation of this mission, but the legality of this is heavily disputed. In accordance with the Austrian constitution, armed forces may only be deployed in a limited number of cases, mainly to defend the country and aid in cases of national emergency, such as in the wake of natural disasters.
Within its self-declared status of permanent neutrality , Austria has a long and proud tradition of engaging in UN-led peacekeeping and other humanitarian missions.
Currently, larger contingents of Austrian forces are deployed in Bosnia and Kosovo. As a federal republic , Austria is divided into nine states German: Districts are subdivided into municipalities Gemeinden.
Statutory Cities have the competencies otherwise granted to both districts and municipalities. The states are not mere administrative divisions but have some legislative authority distinct from the federal government, e.
In recent years, it has been discussed whether today it is appropriate for a small country to maintain ten parliaments.
The Ministry in charge of the Austrian corrections system is the Ministry of Justice. The prison population rate has been fairly steady since The population percentages of the prison system is broken down into 4 categories with the percentages being from July The categories are pre-trial detainees, female prisoners, juvenile prisoners, and foreign prisoners.
Pre-trial detainees make up As reported in July they are currently at Since the population has risen over 2, and has stayed pretty well stabilized at over 8, Austria is a largely mountainous country due to its location in the Alps.
The Alps of western Austria give way somewhat into low lands and plains in the eastern part of the country. The second greater mountain area much lower than the Alps is situated in the north.
According to the WWF , the territory of Austria can be subdivided into four ecoregions: View of Krems at the end of Wachau valley.
With nearly three-quarters of the country dominated by the Alps, the alpine climate is predominant. In the east—in the Pannonian Plain and along the Danube valley —the climate shows continental features with less rain than the alpine areas.
It is important to note though that Austria may experience very cold, severe winters, but most of the time they are only around as cold as those in somewhat comparable climate zones, for example Southern Scandinavia or Eastern Europe.
The subarctic and tundra climates seen around the Alps are much warmer in winter than what is normal elsewhere due in part to the Oceanic influence on this part of Europe.
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